Niche Best Dorms Ranking Methodology
The Best Dorms ranking provides a comprehensive assessment of the quality of campus housing at traditional four-year colleges and universities in the United States. It uses data sourced from various government and public data sets, Niche's own proprietary data, and 630,153 opinion-based survey responses about campus housing from 61,395 current students and recent alumni.
A high ranking in Dorms generally indicates that:
- Students are very satisfied with campus housing in terms of quality, cleanliness, amenities, and the resident community;
- A large percentage of the student body lives in campus housing, and the process to secure housing is straightforward and painless;
- Campus housing costs are reasonable;
- Campus dorms, suites, and apartments are safe, healthy living environments.
Colleges Assessed by this Ranking
At the time of calculation, our database contained records for 2,245 public and private, traditional four-year colleges and universities across the United States. For the purposes of this ranking, a "traditional" college is considered to be any accredited, non-profit post-secondary institution that primarily offers four-year degree programs (as opposed to two-year or less). Some colleges were not included in this ranking if: (1) they were not located in one of the 50 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia; (2) they had fewer than 100 full-time undergraduate students; or (3) they had insufficient data (see below). The final ranking results in 1,296 colleges receiving a grade, with 903 of those also receiving a numerical ranking.
|Student Survey Responses
||Student opinions about the quality of the campus housing at the college they currently or recently attend(ed). Includes 630,153 reviews and opinions from 61,395 unique students. Minimum 15 unique students required at each college.
|Average Housing Cost
||Average cost of campus housing, as reported by the college.
||U.S. Department of Education
||Total housing capacity as a percentage of full-time undergraduate student enrollment, as reported by the college.
||U.S. Department of Education
|Student Housing Crime Rate
||Rate of crimes committed in on-campus housing facilities per 1,000 students, as reported by the college.
||U.S. Department of Education
Statistics obtained from the U.S. Department of Education represent the most recent data available, usually from either 2012–2013 or 2013–2014, as self-reported by the colleges.
The process used to compute this ranking was as follows:
- First, we carefully selected the factors listed above to represent a healthy balance between statistical rigor and practical relevance in the ranking.
- Next, we evaluated the data for each factor to ensure that it provided value for the ranking. (The factor needed to help distinguish colleges from each other and accurately represent each college.) Because there are different factor types, we processed them differently:
After each factor was processed, we produced a standardized score (called a z-score) for each factor at each college. This score evaluates distance from the average using standard deviations and allows each college's score to be compared against others in a statistically sound manner.
With clean and comparable data, we then assigned weights for each factor. The goal of the weighting process was to ensure that no one factor could have a dramatic positive or negative impact on a particular college's final score and that each college's final score was a fair representation of the college's performance. Weights were carefully determined by analyzing:
- Factors built from student-submitted survey responses were individually analyzed to determine a required minimum number of responses. After this, responses were aggregated. We logically have a higher degree of confidence in the aggregated score for colleges with more responses, so a Bayesian method was applied to reflect this confidence.
- Factors built from factual information were inspected for bad data, including outliers or inaccurate values. Where applicable, this data was either adjusted or completely excluded depending on the specific data.
After assigning weights, an overall score was calculated for each college by applying the assigned weights to each college's individual factor scores. This overall score was then assigned a new standardized score (again a z-score, as described in step 3). This is the final score for the ranking.
With finalized scores, we then evaluated the completeness of the data for each individual college. Depending on how much data the college had, we might disqualify it from the numerical ranking or from the grading process. Here is how we distinguished these groups using the weights described in step 4:
- How different weights impacted the distribution of ranked colleges;
- Niche student user preferences and industry research;
- Each factor's contribution to our intended goal of the ranking described in the introduction above.
Lastly, we created a numerical ranking and assigned grades (based on qualifications discussed in step 6). Here is how we produced these values:
- Colleges missing the data for 50 percent or more of the factors (by weight) were completely excluded. They did not qualify for the numerical ranking or a grade. Note: This exclusion occurred before calculation of the final z-score.
- Colleges that had all of the factors and more than 1,500 full-time undergraduate students were deemed eligible for both a grade and a numerical ranking. Colleges that did not have all of the factors or did not meet enrollment requirements were not included in the numerical ranking and received a grade only.
- The numerical ranking was created by ordering each college (when qualified) based on the final z-score discussed in step 5.
- Grades were determined for each college (when qualified) by taking the ordered z-scores (which generally follow a normal distribution) and then assigning grades according to the process below.
Grading Process for This Ranking
While our ranking shows the Top 100 colleges, we use grades to provide the user some context to those rankings and also to provide insight into colleges that did not make the Top 100. It's important to focus on more than just the number in the ranking. Given the high number of colleges included in this ranking, there may not be a large gap between the 15th and 30th ranked colleges. In reality, both are exceptional colleges when compared to the total population of all colleges nationwide. Grades are assigned based on how each college performs compared to all other colleges included in the ranking by using the following distribution of grades and z-scores:
||1.96 ≤ z
||1.28 ≤ z < 1.96
||0.84 ≤ z < 1.28
||0.44 ≤ z < 0.84
||0.00 ≤ z < 0.44
||-0.44 ≤ z < 0
||-0.84 ≤ z < -0.44
||-1.28 ≤ z < -0.84
||-1.96 ≤ z < -1.28
||-2.25 ≤ z < -1.96
||-2.50 ≤ z < -2.25
||-2.50 > z
Note that we intentionally did not assign a grade below D- to any colleges.
Of the 2,245 colleges analyzed, 1,296 received a grade, with 903 of those also receiving a numerical ranking. The top ranked college was Washington University in St. Louis which score well in all factors, except for Housing Cost. The college had a final score that was more than 3.5 standard deviations better than the mean college.
It's important to note that several colleges scored extremely well but did not qualify for the numerical ranking due to insufficient data or an undergraduate enrollment below the minimum 1,500 students. Fourteen colleges still received an A+ grade for Campus Housing but no numerical ranking, including High Point University, which also had a final score that was over 3.5 standard deviations better than the mean college. With full data, these colleges may have ranked in the top 100.
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